Education#v Chapter 2 – Rural Technology

 

Rural Development Through Educational System – A Report

Chapter 2
The Rural Technology

The Course Content and the System
Introduction
Present Status
CORE Syllabus and Time Allotment
Teaching Material
Teachers Training Program
Other Requirements


The Course Content And The System

The rural technology course proposal submitted by Vigyan Ashram was approved by the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education,after suitable changes and modifications made by a committee appointed by them for the purpose.

The subject, “Rural Technology,” was designated as the Xth shop in the technical branch, entitled “Workshop Technology and Engineering Drawing.” The following is reproduced from the report of the committee.

Introduction

This scheme was first formulated by Vigyan Ashram, one of the centers of the Indian Institute of Education, Pune. It is being implemented at Shri Bhairavnath Vidya Mandir, Pabal, dist. Pune 411 403. This program was started in this school from June 1985, as part of a work experience program, pending approval by the Board of Secondary Education. The approval for giving the rural technology course on an experimental basis, was given by the board in March 1986, with retrospective effect from June 1985.

The course has been formulated with the following objectives :

1. Integration of education with development.

2. To stimulate the intellect through physical activities.

3. To broaden the horizon of experience of the students.

4. To reverse the rural to urban migration.

5. To give a multi skill base for specialisation.

The basic philosophy behind the program is that the segregation of intellectual and physical pursuits in different strata of society retards progress in this modern scientific and technological age. One way to overcome this is to integrate education and development. It is expected that this will make learning easier and better, because it is based on practical real life situations. It will also increase awareness of the local problems among the students and therefore be a preparation for the future. Integration will benefit both education and development economically as well, by fuller utilisation of the infrastructure provided for this course.

The community link has certain social implications. The rural life dominated by agriculture cannot be subject to the strict regulation by the clock and the calendar. The milking of the cow, or feeding of the poultry or sowing of the seed cannot be constrained by the 10.30 to 5.30 syndrome. The time periods indicated in the syllabus are therefore guidelines for the relative quantum of work, rather than rule of operation.

The principle of dignity of labour should be actively implemented by not having staff designated for unskilled work only. The students and the teachers must do all the related work together, and the community will share the burden when community services are involved. The community will also have a say in the practical programs of this course, insofar as the syllabus will require certain skills and areas of study. The actual article to be prepared or the project to be undertaken will vary according to the needs of the community.

The infrastructure needed has been designed with the expectation that a number of items required by the schools will be made by the staff. Thus a fair part of the materials consumed should be “capitalised” in the form of assets.

Finally the organisation, including the skills of the staff and the physical assets should be fully utilised, outside the formal rural technology program, by using it for giving paid services to the community, non-formal specialised courses and for work experience classes for non technical students.

The delinking of degrees/certificates from skills, should be encouraged by taking tutors who have learnt the requisite skills by experience over a period of time. Apprentices may be taken for this purpose and this should be encouraged.

Present Status

The experiment in the schools were conducted as follows. For the purpose of selection of students, consent letters were first obtained from parents / guardians of students in the VIII Std. Lots were then drawn to select students from among these, to make up the ‘A’ division of 64 students, who would be given the rural technology course.The students of the A division went to Vigyan Ashram, one day in a week, from 9.30 am to 5.30 pm. In order to accommodate this in the time table, the periods for work experience, social service and drawing were dropped and additional periods taken as necessary. The students had one hour of theory and seven hours of practical work, including engineering drawing, every week for thirty two weeks per year.

The technical education was conducted on the campus of Vigyan Ashram, which is approximately one kilometre from the school. The teachers for the course were drawn from.

1. Diploma holders in engineering.

2. The tutors for practicals were drawn from ITI level or school drop outs, who were intensively trained for approximately two years in practical skills. (VII Std was the minimum qualification but most had studied up to X Std).

The number of teachers and students was as follows.

June 1985

VIII Std students 64, including 15 girls
Theory teachers 1 no
Practical teachers 8 nos.
June 1986

VIII Std students 66, including 15 girls
IX Std students 52, including 12 girls
Evaluation

Internal evaluation was carried out as follows:
Theory examination
Three hours paper at the end of the term.
Practicals
Notes and drawing sheets were evaluated and graded.

Core Syllabus And Time Allotment

Overall Time Allocation in Periods.

Class

Theory

Practicals

Drawing

Total

Spare

Available

VII

48

120

90

258

30

288

IX

63

210

90

363

21

384

X

50

212

90

352

32

384

Syllabus Summary

 

Workshop

Periods

Construction

Periods

Theory

Standard VIII

 

Standard VIII

 
 

Measurement

2

Materials and Construction

10

 

Work,Power,Force

2

   
 

Stresses

2

   

Practicals

       
 

Measurement

4

Carpentry

16

 

Soldering and Welding

16

Bricks

4

Theory

Standard IX

 

Standard IX

 
 

Mechanics

9

Septic Tank and Biogas

3

Practicals

       
 

Fitting

14

Mortar and Concrete incl. Ferrocement

35

 

Sheet Metal

21

   

Theory

Standard X

 

Standard X

 
 

Pumps:Centrifugal and Reciprocating

5

Accounts

6

     

Projects

8

Practicals

       
 

All projects have 53 periods each, projects on any four out of seven themes should be completeted

     
 

Drawing to fabrication two items

 

Participation in building biogas plant or setting up a sanitary block

 

Syllabus Summary

 

Energy and Environment

Periods

Water Resource Development

Periods

Theory

Standard VIII

 

Standard VIII

 
 

Conventional and Non-conventional energy sources

4

Water and its Use

10

Practicals

       
 

Simple Electricity

12

Maps , Rock Types and VES instrument

20

 

Other Energy Devices

8

   

Theory

Standard IX

 

Standard IX

 
 

Conservation of Mass and Energy

3

Levelling and contours

6

 

Water Pollution

3

   

Practicals

       
 

Single phase motors earthing and fuse wires

21

Bund sites

14

 

Diesel engines care and maintenance

14

Well Sites

14

     

Borewell hand pump

7

Theory

Standard X

 

Standard X

 
 

Electric supply, Motors and Starters

6

Percolation tanks and wells

6

 

I.C. Engines

4

   

Practicals

       
 

Servicing of 2 I.C. Engines or 20 tyre services incl. vulcanising

58

Install pipe line and pump or locate two well sites or two hand pump repairs or one word project or drilling a borewell

53

Syllabus Summary

 

Agriculture

Periods

Animal Husbandry

Periods

Theory

Standard VIII

 

Standard VIII

 
 

Land and Soil

2

Plant and Animal Kingdom

8

 

Plants

2

   
 

Evolution

2

   
 

Fertilizers

2

   
 

Agricultural operations

20

Care of animals and birds

20

Theory

Standard IX

 

Standard IX

 
 

Irrigation

6

Poultry diseases

3

 

Genetics

3

Animal Health

3

Practicals

       
 

Drip Irrigation

7

Grow poultry batch/Animal Health Services

35

 

Pest Control

28

   

Theory

Standard X

 

Standard X

 
 

Pest Management

5

Artificial Insemination

4

 

Agro based Industry

 

Pregnancy Diagnosis for cattle

 

Practicals

       
 

Study of one crop cycle or pest management for five farms

53

Economics of cattle, goats or poultry

53

Syllabus Summary

 

Home & Health

Periods

Theory & Practicals

Standard VII

 
 

Hazards and Accidents

2

 

Measurement

4

 

First aid, Cleaning aids

4

 

Sewing and Knitting

12

Theory

Standard IX

 
 

Sanitation

3

 

Mosquitoes and Flies

3

 

Spread of diseases

3

 

Protection from diseases

3

 

Health and well being

3

 

Child care

9

Practicals

   
 

Home remedies

7

 

Food and grain preservation

9

 

Sewing and knitting

21

Theory

Standard X

 
 

Role of women in the family and nation

3

 

Duties and responsibilities

3

Practicals

   
 

Stitch one full size garment and childrens nutrition survey

53

Teaching Material

The following material needs to be prepared.

1. Textbooks for VIII, IX, and Xth standards.

2. Workbooks for VIII, IX and Xth standards.

3. Handbook for teachers (Theory).

4. Handbook for teachers (Practicals).

5. Audio and Video cassettes, slides, models, etc.

Draft books for VIII and IX standards have already been prepared by Vigyan Ashram and the books for X standard is expected to be ready by July (1987).

Work book formats are being tested for VIII and IX standards. Audio cassettes on lessons for VIII and IX standard lectures are in use. Video cassettes on experimental basis for 4 practicals have been prepared by the space applications center, Ahmedabad.

It is suggested that a committee consisting of Dr. Kalbag, Shri Thingale, Prof. Jeurkar and Dr. Phadke be entrusted with the job of finalising the above material by April 1988.

Teachers Training Program

This program is very innovative and is trying for the first time to bring to the rural areas a course which is modern and relevant to all aspects of the rural economy.It is therefore not possible to get teachers that are already trained to teach this course.

In the initial years therefore, the progress and spread of this course will be slow but the growth could be planned to be exponential thereafter.

Assistant Lecturers

For this graduate or diploma holders in Engineering(Agricultural, mechanical,electrical or civil) will be selected. They will be given intensive training and orientation programs in consecutive vacations. The total duration of this program will be 9 months and preferably this will start at least 1 month before the teaching assignment is given.

Instructors

These will have completed the rural technology course at SSC level or technical certificate examinations or be holding ITI certificates in farm mechanic, welder,turner, builder or surveyor trades.

They will be given intensive training and orientation programs in consecutive vacations. The total duration of this program will be 9 months and the training will start preferably 3 months before the teaching assignment is given.

Training facilities could be made available at agricultural engineering colleges,and at Vigyan Ashram, Pabal, Dist. Pune.

In order to encourage the best of the students, to take up the teaching job provision should be made that after two or more years teaching duty, they should get some preferential admission to higher technical education.

Apprentices in the schools (see introduction) under the rural technology program could also be considered after a minimum of three years apprenticeship.

Other Infrastructure Organisation

The technical section will need a superintendent to take the overall responsibility. The staff will include one assistant, one storekeeper to keep stock of the materials and equipment, and an accountant to look after the financial transactions including paid services given to the community and the materials consumed. The technical section will also have a library with a librarian looking after it. The store keeper, accountant, and librarian functions should be combined with similar functions in the rest of the school.

The superintendent, need not be a technical person, but will be administratively in charge of the technical section. As the value of the assets in the technical section is likely to be large in proportion to the other assets, it is necessary to have the responsibility clearly focused.

To aid instructors in practical lessons, a system of appointing monitors from each batch of 8 or 10 in the class, has been tried and recommended. Hence the instructor handles two batches at a time (8-10 students each).The monitor from each batch is a bright student, who is familiarised with the practical lessons in advance and helps in guiding other students during the practical lessons.

Other Requirements

The school should have a scout and guide unit. The scout and guide movement is complementary to the rural technology approach and both will be mutually beneficial. The school should provide 2.0 hectares of land with adequate water supply. The working space required is approx. 100 sq.m. of which at least 72 sq. m should be enclosed. A 3 phase, 10 KvA power supply should be available. There should be adequate storage space for equipment and materials. The school should provide 6 work benches of 1m x 2n x 0.75m height for practical lessons in the engineering subjects. The school will should make available cows and goats for study but these need not be owned by the school.

Other recommendations

Considering that most technical education centers till now have been located in urban areas, it is recommended that centers should be started on a grant basis,particularly schools in village having 10,000 population and under are recommended for 100 recurring and non recurring grants.

VIII Reference Material

IX Detailed Syllabus

X Equipment List and Costs for Rural Technology

The above sections will be found in the appendices to this report.

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